Home > Vol 6, No 11 (2017): 155-189 > Doğan

On the Intellectual Movement in Turkey through Gramsci and Luxemburg

Sevgi Doğan

Abstract


A petition signed by Turkish and Kurdish intellectuals denouncing the attacks in South East of Turkey and demanding a return to peace opens up to question how this intellectual movement can be evaluated as a political action and/or a form of resistance. Here I will try to analyze it from two different aspects: 1) the role of intellectuals leading social change; 2) the form of this movement. The first aspect is associated with the relation of theory to praxis that matters most. The questions are: Is the role of intellectuals in society only educative or pedagogical? Or can they also play the role of directors, organizers, and illuminators of larger groups? Regarding the second aspect, we should ask whether or not the movement led by this petition is spontaneous or organizational, which addresses us to the form of resistance. For this purpose, firstly, I will use Antonio Gramsci's theory of intellectuals. In the Prison Notebooks, Gramsci considers the problem not only as a cultural problem but as a problem directly linked to the concept of hegemony, praxis, and ideology. I will concentrate on some paragraphs in his fourth (§ 33, § 49, § 51), twelfth (§ 1, § 3), and eleventh (§ 12) Notebooks. Secondly, I will try to analyze this movement through Luxemburg’s concept of spontaneity and her understanding of consciousness especially by use of Mass Strike and Stagnation and Progress of Marxism.

Keywords


Hegemony; Spontaneity; Organization; Theory; Praxis, Consciousness.

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Akademisyenler (2016, January 10). We will not be a party to this crime! (in English, French, German, Spanish, Arabic, Russian, Greek). Recovered from https://barisicinakademisyenler.net/node/63.

Adler, G., Hudis, P., & Laschitza, A. (Eds). (2011). The letters of Rosa Luxemburg (G. Shriver, Trans.). London, United Kingdom: Verso.

Adler, M. (1974). Il socialismo e gli intellettuali [Socialism and the intellectuals] (L. Paggi, Trans.). Bari, Italy: De Donato. (Original work published in 1910)

Althusser, L. (1969). For Marx (B. Brewster, Trans.). London, England: The Penguin Press.

Amodio, L. (1986). Rosa Luxemburg e Gramsci. continuità e differenze [Rosa Luxemburg and Gramsci. Continuity and differences]. Il Politico, 1, 83-94.

Benda, J. (2014). The treason of the intellectuals (R. Aldington, Trans.). London-New Brunswick, United Kingdom: Transaction.

Chomsky, N. (1967, February 23). The responsibility of intellectuals. The New York Review of Books. Recovered from https://chomsky.info/19670223/

Foucault, M. (1980a). Body and power. In C. Gordon, et. al. (Eds.), Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (pp. 55-62). New York, United States of America: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1980b). On popular justice: A discussion with maoists. In C. Gordon, et. al. (Eds.), Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (pp. 1-36). New York, United States of America: Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1980c). Truth and power. In C. Gordon, et. al. (Eds.), Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (pp. 109-133). New York, United States of America: Pantheon. (Original work published in 1977).

Frosini, F. (2010). La religione dell'uomo moderno: politica e verità nei Quaderni del carcere di Antonio Gramsci [The religion of modern person: politics and truth in Antonio Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks]. Roma, Italy: Carocci.

Guillaume, P. (Ed.). (1970). Prefazione. In R. Luxemburg & F. Mehring, Scioperi, Selvaggi, Spontaneità delle masse (pp. 5-15). Napoli, Italy: Della Vecchia Talpa.

Gramsci, A. (1951). La questione meridionale [Some aspects of the southern question]. Roma, Italy: Rinascita.

Gramsci, A., Spriano, P. (Ed.). (1967). Scritti politici [Political writings]. Roma, Italy: Riuniti.

Gramsci, A., Gerratana, V. (Ed.). (1977a). Quaderni del carcere 1-5 [Prison notebooks 1-5] (Vol. 1). Torino, Italy: Einaudi.

Gramsci, A. , Gerratana, V. (Ed.). (1977b). Quaderni del carcere 6-11 [Prison notebooks 6-11] (Vol. ). Torino, Italy: Einaudi.

Gramsci, A., Gerratana, V. (Ed.). (1977c). Quaderni del carcere 12-29 [Prison notebooks 12-29] (Vol. 3). Torino, Italy: Einaudi.

Gramsci, A. (1987a). Il Partito comunista [The communist party]. In V. Gerratana & Antonio, A. (Eds.), L’Ordine Nuovo (pp. 651-661). Santucci, Italy: Einaudi. (Original work published in 1920, September 4 and October 9).

Gramsci, A. (1987b). Cronache dell’Ordine Nuovo, 39 [Chronicles of the new order, 39]. In V. Gerratana & Antonio, A. (Eds.), L’Ordine Nuovo (pp. 703-704). Santucci, Italy: Einaudi. (Original work published in 1920, October 9).

Gramsci, A. (1992). Prison notebooks (Vol. 1, J. A. Buttigieg & A. Callari, Trans.). New York, United State of America: Columbia University Press.

Gramsci, A. (1996). Prison notebooks (Vol. 2, J. A. Buttigieg, Trans.). New York, United State of America: Columbia University Press.

Hofstadter, R. (1963). Anti-intellectualism in American life. New York, United State of America: Vintage.

Laclau, E & Mouffe, C. (1987, November-December). Post-marxism without apologies. New Left Review, 1(166). Recovered from https://newleftreview.org/I/166/ernesto-laclau-chantal-mouffe-post-marxism-without-apologies

Laclau, E & Mouffe, C. (1992). Hegemogy and socialist strategy: towards a radical democratic politics, London, United Kingdom: Verso.

Lafargue, P. (1951). Ricordi personali [Personal memories]. In Ricordi su Marx (pp. 41-63). Roma, Italy: Rinascita.

Luxemburg, R. (1919). Order prevails in Berlin! (Marcus, Trans.). In Gesammelte Werke (Vol. 4). Berlin: German: Dietz Verlag. Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1919/01/14.htm

Luxemburg, R. (1925). The mass strike, the political party and the trade unions (P. Lavin, Trans). Detroit, United State of America: Marxist Educational Society. (Original work published in 1906). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1906/mass-strike/

Luxemburg, R. (1934). Organizational questions of the Russian social democracy. In Revolutionary socialist organization. Integer. (Original work published in 1904). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1904/questions-rsd/

Luxemburg, R. (1940a). Stagnation and progress of Marxism. New International, 6 (7), 143-144. (Original work published in 1903). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1903/misc/stagnation.htm

Luxemburg, R. (1940b). The Russian revolution (B. Wolfe, Trans.). New York, United States of America: Workers Age. (Original work published in 1918). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/russian-revolution/

Luxemburg, R., (1970). Centralismo o democrazia? La rivoluzione russa [Organizational questions of the Russian social democracy. The Russian Revolution]. Roma, Italy: Samonà e Savelli. (Original works respectively published in 1904, 1918).

Luxemburg, R. (2003). Junius pamphlet: the crisis of German social democracy (D. Hollis, Trans.). In Luxemburg Internet Archive (marxists.org). (Original works published in 1915). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1915/junius/

Machiavelli, N. (1981). Principe [The prince]. In S. Bertelli (Ed.), Il principe e Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio (pp.13-105). Milano, Italy: Feltrinelli.

Marx, K. (1964). Rules and administrative regulations of the international Workingmen’s Association. In The general council of the first international 1866-1868. Minutes (pp. 265-270). Moscow, Russia: Progress Publishers. (Original work published in 1867). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/iwma/documents/1867/rules.htm

Marx, K. (2010). The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte [PDF version]. (Original work published in 1852). Recovered from https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/18th-Brumaire.pdf

Mustè, M. (2017, October). Marxismo e la filosofia della praxis [Marxism and the Philosophy of Praxis]. La filosofia italiana: Tradizione, novità, interpretazioni. Conference conducted by University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Negri T. (2015). Negri on hegemony: Gramsci, Tagliatti, Laclau. Verso Blog. Recovered from https://www.versobooks.com/blogs/2179-negri-on-hegemony-gramsci-togliatti-laclau.

Nettl, J. P. (1966). Rosa Luxemburg (Vols. 1-2). London, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Oelssner, F. (1953). Rosa Luxemburg. Roma, Italy: Rinascita.

Pannian, P. (2016). Edward Said and the question of subjectivity. New York, United State of America: Palgrave Macmillan.

Said, E. (1995). Entelektüel: Sürgün, marjinal, yabancı [Representations of the intellectual] (T. Birkan, Trans.). Istanbul, Turkey: Ayrıntı Yayınları.

Said, E. (1996). Introduction. In Representations of the intellectual: The 1993 Reith lectures. New York, United State of America: Vintage.

Sasso, P. (2002). Julien Benda, Benedetto Croce e la funzione dell’intellettuale [Julien Benda, Benedetto Croce and the function of intellectual]. In T. Goruppi & L. Sozzi (Eds.), L’utile, il bello, il vero: il dibattito francese sulla funzione della letteratura tra otto e novecento (pp. 273-290). Pisa, Italy: ETS.

Shandro, A. (2014). Lenin and the logic of hegemony: Political practice and theory in the class struggle. Chicago, United States of America: Haymarket.

Shils, E. (1974). The intellectuals and powers and other essays. Chicago, United States of America: University of Chicago Press.

Sözcü (2015, October 25). Murat Belge de Erdoğan konusunda kandırılmış! [Murat Belge was also deceived by Erdoğan]. Sözcü. Recoverd from http://www.sozcu.com.tr/2015/gundem/murat-belge-de-erdogan-konusunda-kandirilmis-968893/

Spriano, P. (Ed.). (1967). Scritti politici [Political writings]. Roma, Italy: Editori Riuniti.

Srivastava, N. & Bhattacharya, B. (2012). The postcolonial Gramsci. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.

Stalin, J. (1952). Questioni del leninismo [Concerning questions of Leninism]. Roma, Italy: Rinascita.

Steiner, G., Kolakowski, L. & O’Brien, C. C. (2015). The responsibility of intellectuals. Salmagundi: a quarterly of the humanities & social sciences (187), 218-246, 635-637.

Thomas, D. P. (2014, October 10) Historical Materialism at Sixteen: An Interview with Peter D. Thomas by George Souvlis. Jacobin Magazin. Recovered from https://www.jacobinmag.com/2014/05/historical-materialism-at-sixteen/.

Thomas, D. P. (2011, May 19). “The Gramscian moment”: an interview with Peter Thomas by Martin Thomas. Works’ liberty: Reason in revolt. Recovered from http://www.workersliberty.org/pt.

Thomas, D. P. (2009). The Gramscian moment: Philosophy, hegemony and Marxism. Leiden, Germany: Brill.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Sevgi Doğan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Las Torres de Lucca. Revista Internacional de Filosofía Política
ISSN-e 2255-3827

© 2016. Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Biblioteca Complutense | Ediciones Complutense